What is nonpublic personal information (NPI)?

As defined by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Privacy Rule, any personally identifiable financial information that a financial institution collects about an individual in connection with providing a financial product or service, unless that information is otherwise publicly available. NPI includes: Any information an individual provides to get a financial product or service (e.g., name, address, income, Social Security Number, or other information on an application); any information a financial institution collects about an individual from a transaction involving financial product(s) or service(s) (e.g., the fact that an individual is a consumer or customer, account numbers, payment history, loan or deposit balances, and credit or debit card purchases); or any information obtained about an individual in connection with providing a financial product or service (e.g., information from court records or from a consumer report). The Privacy Rule restricts a business’ use and disclosure of NPI, and requires them to give consumers written notice describing their privacy policies and practices.